For power, torque and cutting force calculations, the specific cutting force, or k c1, is used.It can be explained as the force, F c, in the cutting direction (see picture), needed to cut a chip area of 1 mm² that has a thickness of 1 mm.The k c1 value is different for the six material groups, and also varies within each group. In OD hard turning, a tool should never be fed above the workpiece center line. A prediction method of the deflections suffered in finishing operations with variable depths of cut is necessary to achieve high accuracy. Manufacturing Process and Design. 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All Answers (13) 6th Apr, 2015. PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE from the free cutting, in authors' opinion, the impact of the cutting velocity vC on the cutting forces FC and FN seem also to be different. Note that the resultant force, R, must be collinear to balance the forces. The vectoral sum force components Fa and also the resultant force R are shown. An Chip and fractures formation during cutting: 1 = Perpendicular ( K=90o, V=90o, S=90o); 2 = Parallel ( K=90o, V=0o, S=0o) to wood grains The issue of fracture formation and propagation in the contact region of the Using turning as the most common machining example, analytical 2D and 3D force models are first proposed to model cutting forces under worn tool conditions with both crater and flank wear presented using the slip-line based plasticity theory. In order to evaluate and optimize these processes through tool wear cutting forces have … Is a force that is generated by the cutting tool as it machines the workpiece. The cutting edge being oblique, the shear force acts on a larger area and thus tool life is increased. ... As with internal turning, tools with an internal cutting fluid supply are recommended. Surface Finish. This structure allows accurate and highly dynamic force measurements so that even the smallest changes in the process chain can be quantified immediately.