The Sacred College now contained so many of his adherents and countrymen that he had nothing to fear from that quarter. On 15 July of that year the Duke of Biseglia, Lucretia's husband was attacked by five masked assassins, who grievously wounded him. Threats of a council and of deposition had no terrors for Alexander, whose control of the Sacred College was absolute. The report of the Ferrarese ambassador, that the new Pope had resolved to keep them at a distance from Rome, is quite credible, for all his earlier measures for their advancement pointed towards Spain. The same good principle is set forth by Leo XIII in his Letter of 8 September, 1889, to Cardinals De Luca, Pitra, and Hergenröther on the study of Church History: "The historian of the Church has the duty to dissimulate none of the trials that the Church has had to suffer from the faults of her children, and even at times from those of her own ministers." A more powerful protest than that of the Cardinal of Sienna reverberated through the world a week later when, on the sixteenth of June, the body of the young Duke was fished out of the Tiber, with the throat cut and many gaping wounds. To the Romans especially, who had come to regard Borgia as one of themselves, and who predicted a pontificate at once splendid and energetic, the choice was most acceptable; and they manifested their joy in bonfires, torchlight processions, garlands of flowers, and the erection of triumphal arches with extravagant inscriptions. cit.) War had broken out in Naples between France and Spain over the division of the spoils. One of the first of his public acts was to prevent a collision between Spain and Portugal over their newly-discovered territories, by drawing his line of demarcation, an act of truly peaceful import, and not of usurpation and ambition [Civiltà Cattolica (1865), I, 665-680]. "Pope Alexander VI." However, the tyrants who were expelled never returned, whilst the Borgian dynasty came to a speedy end in the pontificate of Julius II. On 6 August, 1503, the Pope, with Caesar and others, dined with Cardinal Adriano da Corneto in a villa belonging to the Cardinal and very imprudently remained in the open air after nightfall. At his approach the unpopular Alfonso abdicated in favour of his son Ferrantino, the latter, failing to receive support, retired to seek the protection of Spain. Contact information. Two in particular may be mentioned: the Dominican Ollivier, "Le Pape Alexandre VI et les Borgia" (Paris, 1870), of whose work only one volume appeared, dealing with the Pope's cardinalate; and Leonetti "Papa Alessandro VI secondo documenti e carteggi del tempo" (3 vols., Bologna, 1880). His contemporaries praise his handsome and imposing figure, his cheerful countenance, persuasive manner, brilliant conversation, and intimate mastery of the ways of polite society. During the war, however, and in the midst of the Jubilee of 1500 there occurred another domestic murder. contrast of hugantes ang disenyo nga namugna pinaagi sa lain laing potma ug linya gitawag og? The third marriage of Lucrezia, celebrated by proxy in the Vatican (30 December, 1501), far exceeded the first in splendour and extravagance. In addition to the contempt of the papal authority involved in the transaction, this accession of strength to a baronial family already too powerful could not but be highly displeasing. It had taught him that if he would be safe in Rome and be really master in the States of the Church, he must curb the insolent and disloyal barons who had betrayed him in his hour of danger. ty New questions in Art. At his coronation in St. Peter's (26 Aug.), and during his progress to St. John Lateran, he was greeted with an ovation, "greater", says the diarist, "than any Pontiff had ever received". As cardinal he had written two treatises on canonical subjects and a defence of the Christian faith. The elevation to the papacy of one who for thirty-five years had conducted the affairs of the Roman chancery with rare ability and industry met with general approbation; we find no evidence of the "alarm and horror" of which Guicciardini speaks. Long ago Leo the Great (440-461) declared, in his third homily for Christmas Day, that "the dignity of Peter suffers no diminution even in an unworthy successor" (cujus dignitas etiam in indigno haerede non deficit). Moreover, in order to retain Brittany, it was essential that he should marry his deceased cousin's widow, Queen Anne. During his reign Bramante designed for Ferdinand and Isabella that exquisite architectural gem, the Tempietto, on the traditional site of St. Peter's martyrdom. ad an. The patriarch of the long-maligned family was Pope Alexander VI, who used the power of the Vatican to further the ambitions and wealth of his own family. These and other works were occasioned, partly by a laudable desire to remove a stigma from the good repute of the Catholic Church, and partly by the gross exaggerations of Victor Hugo and others who permitted themselves all licence in dealing with a name so helpless and detested. She is known henceforth, and till her death in 1519, as a model wife and princess, lauded by all for her amiability, her virtue, and her charity. "The latter are forgiven nothing", says De Maistre in his great work, "Du Pape", "because everything is expected from them, wherefore the vices lightly passed over in a Louis XIV become most offensive and scandalous in an Alexander VI" (II, c. xiv). Nihil Obstat. reality, Alexander VI could be aptly described as a tireless bureaucrat, a man of extravagant tastes and, above all, as a temporal prince. So little have Catholic historians defended him that in the middle of the nineteenth century Cesare Cantù could write that Alexander VI was the only Pope who had never found an apologist. This ill-starred young man was married to a cousin of the King of Spain, and became grandfather to St. Francis Borgia, whose virtues went a great way towards atoning for the vices of his kin. On 1 October, 1498, Caesar, no longer a cardinal, but designated Duke of Valentinois and Peer of France set out from Rome to bring the papal dispensation to King Louis, a cardinal's hat to his minister D'Amboise, and to find for himself a wife of high degree. Ipaliwanag ang mga ito?2. This vigorous method of administering justice soon changed the face of the city, and was ascribed by the grateful populace to "the interposition of God." 1. Alexander's motive in thus reversing his former policy with respect to foreign interference was patent. He proceeded at once to justify this good opinion of the Romans by putting an end to the lawlessness which reigned in the city, the extent of which we can infer from the statement of Infessura that within a few months over two hundred and twenty assassinations had taken place. dilaw + dalandan =______b. In 1456, at the age of twenty-five, he was made Cardinal Deacon of St. Nicolo in Carcere, and held that title until 1471, when he became Cardinal-Bishop of Albano; in 1476 he was made Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Dean of the Sacred College (Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica, II, 12). Alexander VI, given name Rodrigo Borgia, Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance. Dr. Pastor ranks them all as failures. Dr. Pastor considers that the publication of the documents in the supplement to the third volume of Thuasne's edition of the Diary of Burchard (Paris, 1883) renders "forever impossible" any attempts to save the reputation of Alexander VI. In 1497, Alexander decreed that the "Praefectus Sacrarii Pontificii", commonly called "Sacristan of the Pope", but virtually parish-priest of the Vatican and keeper of the Pope's conscience, should be permanently and exclusively a prelate chosen from the Augustinian Order, an arrangement that still endures. ), "and a disciple of the God who hath a horror of lies. Many a saintlier pope than Alexander VI would have made the fatal mistake of yielding to brute force and surrendering unconditionally to the conqueror of Italy; the most heroic of the popes could not have sustained the stability of the Holy See at this crucial moment with greater firmness. Okay, let’s be frank: Alexander VI is a bad pope, if not the worst pope; bad enough that teh Protestant attempt to shoehorn Savanorola as “precursor” to protestanism, which begin some 10 years after the end of Alexander VI. Trinità dei Monti, and the Spaniards Santa Maria di Monserrato. The humiliation of the Roman aristocracy was complete; for the first time in the history of the papacy the Pope was, in the fullest sense, ruler of his States. In 1500, the ambassador of Emperor Maximilian laid the cornerstone of the handsome national church of the Germans, Santa Maria dell' Anima. His remains lie in the Spanish national church of Santa Maria di Monserrato. Caesar, however, continued his infamous career of simony, extortion, and treachery, and by the end of 1502 had rounded out his possessions by the capture of Camerino and Sinigaglia. The subsequent abandonment of his good resolutions concerning his children may safely be ascribed to the evil counsels of Ascanio Sforza, whom Borgia had rewarded with the vice-chancellorship, and who was virtually his prime minister. and is not improbable (Raynaldus, Ann. The Oratorian Raynaldus (d. 1677), who continued the semi-official Annals of Baronius, gave to the world at Rome (ad an. On 15 July of that year the Duke of Biseglia, Lucretia's husband was attacked by five masked assassins, who grievously wounded him. Excommunicated by the Pontiff as rebels, they offered to surrender the keys of their castles to the Sacred College, but Alexander demanded them for himself. Under his direction, Pinturicchio adorned the Appartimento Borgia in the Vatican, pointing the way to his immortal disciple, Raphael. So little have Catholic historians defended him that in the middle of the nineteenth century Cesare Cantù could write that Alexander VI was the only Pope who had never found an apologist. Pope Alexander VI (1431 – 1503) The reward for “Baddest Pope Ever” arguably goes to Rodrigo Borgia, who enjoyed the benefits of having an uncle who just happened to be Pope Calixtus III. Historians have laboured in vain to discover who perpetrated the foul deed, but that it was a warning from Heaven to repent, no one felt more keenly than the Pope himself. On the twelfth the Pope took to his bed. With coolness and skill Caesar decoyed the conspirators into his power and put them to death. It surrendered to the "Great Captain" within two weeks. Dr. Pastor ranks them all as failures. Whether he died a natural death or was privately executed, is uncertain Losing no time, Caesar returned towards Rome, and so great was the terror he inspired that the frightened barons fled before him, says Villari (I, 356), "as from the face of a hydra". Not to be outdone, the French Cardinal Briçonnet erected SS. Notwithstanding these and similar actions, which might seem to entitle him to no mean place in the annals of the papacy, Alexander continued as Pope the manner of life that had disgraced his cardinalate (Pastor, op. Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja) (Valencian: Roderic Llançol i de Borja [roðeˈɾiɡ ʎanˈsɔl i ðe ˈbɔɾdʒa], Spanish: Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja [roˈðɾiɣo lanˈθol i ðe ˈβoɾxa]; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death in 1503. If her father meant her as an instrument in her new position for the advancement of his political combinations, he was mistaken. Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (Valencian: Roderic Llançol i de Borja [roðeˈɾiɡ ʎanˈsɔl i ðe ˈbɔɾdʒa], Spanish: Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja [roˈðɾiɣo lanˈθol i ðe ˈβoɾxa]; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death. Louis had inherited from his grandmother, Valentina Visconti, strong claims to the Duchy of Milan, usurped by the Sforzas, and he made no secret of his intention to enforce them. 26) that it was in his time the opinion of historians that Alexander had obtained the papacy partly through money and partly through promises and the persuasion that he would not interfere with the lives of his electors. . Carlotta's repugnance, however, could not be overcome. His parents were Jofre Lançol and Isabella Borja, sister of Cardinal Alfonso Borja, later Pope Callixtus III. He changed the Mausoleum of Adrian into a veritable fortress capable of sustaining a siege. He listened to good sermons with a critical ear, and admired fine music. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. MLA citation. New York: Robert Appleton Company. March 1, 1907. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Although both father and son at first spurned the notion of a matrimonial alliance between the proud house of Este and the Pope's illegitimate daughter, they were favourably influenced by the King of France. cit., III, 469-472; Creighton, Hist. These and other works were occasioned, partly by a laudable desire to remove a stigma from the good repute of the Catholic Church, and partly by the gross exaggerations of Victor Hugo and others who permitted themselves all licence in dealing with a name so helpless and detested. . While still a cardinal, he had married one daughter, Girolama, to a Spanish nobleman. pula + dalanadan =______c. reads like the famous catalogue of Leporello; and since, notwithstanding the magnificence of his household and his passion for card-playing, he was strictly abstemious in eating and drinking, and a careful administrator, he became one of the wealthiest men of his time. Convinced that Caesar was the instigator of the deed, he made an unsuccessful attempt, on his recovery, to kill his supposed enemy, and was instantly dispatched by Caesar's bodyguard. Meanwhile, affairs in France took an unexpected turn which deeply modified the course of Italian history and the career of the Borgias. Colonna and Savelli were traitors from the beginning, but he felt most keenly the defection of Virginio Orsini, the commander of his army. To Alexander we owe the beautiful ceiling of Santa Maria Maggiore, in the decoration of which tradition says he employed the first gold brought from America by Columbus. He still longed for the hand of Carlotta, who resided in France, but since that princess persisted in her refusal, he received instead the hand of a niece of King Louis, the sister of the King of Navarre, Charlotte D'Albret. …, lt + lila =_______e. APA citation. Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo Borgia) was an inspiring leader, defender, and tactician. All we can affirm with certainty is that the determining factor of this election was the accession to Borgia of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza's vote and influence, it is almost equally certain that Sforza's course was dictated not by silver, but by the desire to be the future Pontiff's chief adviser. Rodrigo de Borja y Doms (Italian: Rodrigo Borgia) was the Spanish-born 214th Pope who was raised to the papal chair as Pope Alexander VI. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. comic strip, anu ano ang kahalagahan ng mga natural at makasaysayang lugar tanawin sa pilipinas, What's NewActivity 3: Describe the picture below.31CoAbeAr, 1. Alexander was still in doubt which side he could most advantageously support, when his career came to an abrupt close. Lucrezia, now in her twenty-third year, did not long remain a widow; her father destined her to be the bride of another Alfonso, son and heir of Duke Ercole of Ferrara. Alexander VI (in office 1492-1503) is without a doubt the most infamous pope in history. …, ssociate words/ideas with asmany as you can. Alexander earned the enmity of Spain, the obloquy of many narrow minded contemporaries, and the gratitude of posterity, by his tolerant policy towards the Jews, whom he could not be coerced into banishing or molesting. J__S__ __ the … Theol. Julius felt an attachment to the Sistine Chapel, as it had been built a few decades earlier by his Uncle Pope Sixtus IV. In September, 1494, the French crossed the Alps; on the last day of that year they made their entry into Rome, needing no other weapon in their march through the peninsula, as Alexander wittily remarked (Commines vii, 15), than the chalk with which they marked out the lodgings of the troops. If not Bramante, some other great architect, equally attracted to Rome by the report of the Pope's liberality, built for Cardinal Riario the magnificent palace of the Cancellaria. Loughlin, James. By the fortification of Torre di Nona, he secured the city from naval attacks. A stern Nemesis pursued him till death in the shape of a strong parental affection for his children. Roderic Llançol was born at Xàtiva in the Kingdom of Valencia, one of the component states of the Crown of Aragon. Giovanni Borgia (March 1498 – 1548), known as the Infans Romanus ("the Roman child"), was born into the House of Borgia in secret and is of unclear parentage. There is all the less reason, therefore, says Cardinal Hergenröther (op. The youngest son, Jofre, was also to be inflicted upon the Church of Spain. cit., III, 475), "does not affect the intrinsic worth of the jewel, nor does the golden coin lose its value when it passes through impure hands. Ferrante talked of war, but, through the mediation of Spain, he came to terms with the Pope and, as a pledge of reconciliation, gave his granddaughter, Sancia, in marriage to Alexander's youngest son Jofre, with the principality of Squillace as dower. On 1 October, 1498, Caesar, no longer a cardinal, but designated Duke of Valentinois and Peer of France set out from Rome to bring the papal dispensation to King Louis, a cardinal's hat to his minister D'Amboise, and to find for himself a wife of high degree. Not to be outdone, the French Cardinal Briçonnet erected SS. There was no place in his programme for a reform of abuses. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. Even the characters of the Bible has been White-washed as well. As the series began Pope Innocent VIII was dying. No blame attaches to Alexander for issuing the desired decree annulling the King's marriage or for granting him a dispensation from the impediment of affinity. Alexander issued a wise decree concerning the censorship of books, and sent the first missionaries to the New World. Pope Alexander VI. dilaw + berde =______g. cit., III, 375, 450-451, 475). In 1480, Pope Innocent VIII made the child eligible for Orders by absolving him from the ecclesiastical irregularity that followed his birth de episcopo cardinali et conjugatâ, and conferred several Spanish benefices on him, the last being the Bishopric of Pampeluna, in the neighbourhood of which, by a strange fatality, he eventually met his death. (1907). http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01289a.htm. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Notwithstanding these and similar actions, which might seem to entitle him to no mean place in the annals of the papacy, Alexander continued as Pope the manner of life that had disgraced his cardinalate (Pastor, op. He enjoyed and laughed at the scurrilous lampoons that were in circulation in which he was accused of incredible crimes, and took no steps to shield his reputation. He was adopted into the immediate family of Callixtus and was known henceforward to the Italians as Rodrigo Borgia. There is all the less reason, therefore, says Cardinal Hergenröther (op. Anu ang sa palagay ninyonglaro s On the twelfth the Pope took to his bed. His family name is written Llançol in Valencian and Lanzol in Spanish. His fondness for theatrical performances encouraged the development of the drama. His magnificent Via Alessandrina, now called Borgo Nuovo, remains to the present day the grand approach to St. Peter's. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. The family rose to even greater heights following the papal appointment of Rodrigo’s uncle, Alfonso de … On 27 July, Alexander left Rome to survey his conquest; at the same time he left the widowed Lucrezia in the Vatican with authority to open his correspondence and conduct the routine business of the Holy See. The young Rodrigo had not yet definitely chosen his profession when the elevation of his uncle to the papacy (1455) opened up new prospects to his ambition. Quart. The Orsini, who might have known that their turn would come next, were so shortsighted as to assist the Pope in the ruin of their hereditary foes. Ecclesiastical approbation. 1. eccl. In many respects, he was no better or In short, Alexander VI was a great pope of the Renaissance. Unsuccessful in obtaining for his family the possessions of the Orsini, the Pope now demanded the consent of his cardinals to the erection of Benevento, Terracina, and Pontecorvo into a duchy for the Duke of Gandia. By the end of the year the French had re-crossed into France. his attempt to poison Cardinal Adriano da Corneto and his incest relations with Lucrezia (Pastor, op. Threats of a council and of deposition had no terrors for Alexander, whose control of the Sacred College was absolute. Alexander was, therefore, easily induced to enter a defensive alliance with Milan and Venice; the league was solemnly proclaimed, 25 April, 1493. His official position in the Curia after 1457 was that of Vice-Chancellor of the Roman Church, and though many envied him this lucrative office he seems in his long administration of the Papal Chancery to have given general satisfaction. In addition to the contempt of the papal authority involved in the transaction, this accession of strength to a baronial family already too powerful could not but be highly displeasing. Join now. They were finally obliged to raise the siege, and on 25 January, 1497, they were completely routed at Soriano. …, a larawan?3. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. On 27 June of that year the Pope deposed his chief vassal, Federigo of Naples, on the plea of an alleged alliance with the Turks to the detriment of Christendom, and approved the secret Treaty of Granada, by the terms of which the Kingdom of Naples was partitioned between Spain and France. However, the tyrants who were expelled never returned, whilst the Borgian dynasty came to a speedy end in the pontificate of Julius II. May mga paghahalintulad ba ang mga nasa larawan? The Catholic Encyclopedia. He also erected the confiscated Possessions of the aforesaid families into two duchies, bestowing one on Rodrigo, the infant son of Lucrezia, the other on Juan Borgia, born to him a short while after the murder of Gandia, and to whom was given the latter's baptismal name (Pastor, op. Finally, on 12 May, he crowned himself, but in the following July he was cutting his way home through the ranks of the allied Italians. 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